Rawa Danau-Potential Birding

Rawa Danau
Location Indonesia, Banten
Central coordinates 105o 59.00′ East  6o 9.00′ South
IBA criteria A1, A2
Area 4,200 ha
Altitude 0 – 623m
Year of IBA assessment 2004
Burung Indonesia 

Site description Located around 15 km west of Serang or around 130 km west of Jakarta, Rawa Danau (also known as Ranca Danau) is a freshwster lake and surrounded by freshwater swamp forest. Most of the lake surface is covered by water hyacinth, “kasau air”, and other water plant. Rawa Danau surrounded by mountains and only have one outlet pass through Cidana River. Freshwater swamp forest in Rawa Danau is last reamining one in West Java (Silvius et.al.1987). This area has been degraded heavily (Whitten et.al.1996, Wibowo & Suyatno 1998)

Populations of IBA trigger species

Species Season Period Population estimate Quality of estimate IBA Criteria IUCN Category
Lesser Adjutant Leptoptilos javanicus 2004 present [units unknown] A1 Vulnerable
Javan Hawk-eagle Nisaetus bartelsi 2004 present [units unknown] A1 Endangered
Java Sparrow Padda oryzivora 2004 present [units unknown] A1 Vulnerable


Protected areas

Protected area Designation Area (ha) Relationship with IBA Overlap with IBA (ha)
Gunung Tukung Gede Nature Reserve 1,700 protected area contained by site 1,700
Rawa Danau Nature Reserve 2,500 protected area contained by site 2,500



IUCN habitat Habitat detail Extent (% of site)
Wetlands (inland) major




Other biodiversity Sus verrucosus, Presbytis comata, Trachypithecus auratus (van Balen personal communication., MacKinnon et.al.1982, Silvius et.al.1987). Alocasia bantamensis and Coix lachrymajobi, the endemic flora of Indonesia (Directorate General of Tourism, undated)

Management considerations Settlements, wildlife hunting and deforestation (MacKinnon et.al.1982)

Protection status Include Rawa Danau Nature Reserve (declared based on GB No. 60 Stbl.689 on 16 November 1921 with the area of 2500 ha). And Gunung Tukung Gede Nature Reserve (declared based on SK. Menteri Pertanian No. 395/Kpts/Um/8/79 on 23 June 1979 with the area of 1700 ha) (Anon 1997).

References Anon. 1997. Statistik Perlindungan Hutan dan Pelestarian Alam 1996/1997. Departemen Kehutanan dan Perkebunan, Direktorat Jenderal Perlindungan Hutan dan Pelestarian Alam, Jakarta.Directorate General of Tourism. tanpa tahun. Indonesia, National Park and Nature Reserve. Directorate General of Tourism, Jakarta.MacKinnon, J., Smiet, F., and Artha, M.B. 1982. A National Conservation Plan for Indonesia, Vol. III: Java and Bali. UNDP/FAO. Bogor.Melisch R., Noo, Y.R., Giesen, W., Widjanarti, E. and Rudyanto. 1993. An Assestment of the Important of Rawa Danau for Nature Conservation and An Evaluation of Resource Use. Asian Wetlands Bureau, Bogor.Silvius, M.J., Djuharsa, E., Taufik, A. W., Steeman, A.P.J.M, and Berczy, E.T. 1986. The Indonesian Wetland Inventory: A Preliminary Compilation of Information on Wetlands of Indonesia. PHPA-AWB/Interweder & Edwin, Indonesia.Whitten, A.J., Soeriaatmadja, R.E. and Afiff, S.A. 1996. The Ecology of Java and Bali. Periplus edition, Singapore.Wibowo, P. & Suyatno, N. 1998. An overview of Indonesian Wetland Sites – II: an update information – Included in the Indonesian Wetland Database. Wetlands Intenational-Indonesia Programme/PHPA; Bogor

Banten birding-Pulau dua

The object was to see as many of the regional endemics as possible, spending most time in the Cibodas area. I hired a Jakarta-based car hire operator, Himawan Susatra http://www.himawansusastra.com to drive me from Jakarta Airport to Cibodas; from Cibodas to Carita; and from Carita to Jakarta with a stopover at Pulau Dua – for a total cost of about $A380, which was well worthwhile. Himawan will fit in with a birder’s schedule, which included a pick-up at 3.30am at Carita to be at Pulau Dua at first light.

I was at Cibodas from 14 to 18 June, mostly in Gunung Gede Pangrangro National Park. On three days I walked to Air Panas (2150m) or about 500m beyond these hot springs. I spent time at the waterfall and around Blue Lake. The Junction, where the waterfall trail meets the main trail, was a useful reference point for sightings, and most good birds were seen between here and Air Panas. I spent a day at the Cibodas Botanic Gardens, and a morning at the end of the golf course and along the lower trails of the park. I should have spent one more day here and one day less at Carita, but I was keen to escape Freddy’s Homestay in Cibodas, which is handily located for the birds but a bit too rustic for my liking, although host Freddy is a delight and caters well for the quirky needs of birders. Major dips here were the endemic laughingthrush and partridge.

At Carita I stayed at the Sunset View Hotel, an easy walk from the Wisata Huta Reserve behind the beach village. This so-called reserve had a constant stream of villagers walking through it, many with axes, guns and bird-catching equipment. In three mornings I failed to see White-breasted Babbler and fear they have all been captured.

We had no trouble finding Pulau Dua by asking people for directions. This was nice wetland habitat with mangroves, but I dipped on the Javan White-eye.

I stayed at the Hotel Sanno in Jakarta which is conveniently located for the airport and for a visit to Muara Angke, where the boardwalk through the remnant wetland has been repaired but the tower is no longer in use.

Species Lists

[] = heard only. *denotes lifer. common names follow Clements checklist.

Cattle Egret,
Great Egret,
Intermediate Egret,
Little Egret,
Glossy Ibis (Pulau Dua),
Javan Pond-Heron,
Striated Heron,
Grey Heron,
Oriental Darter,
Little Cormorant (Pulau Dua),
White-breasted Waterhen,
Common Moorhen,
*Javan Plover (several around pools at Pulau Dua),
Crested Serpent-Eagle,
Spotted Kestrel (Cibodas golf course),
*Javan Hawk-Eagle (1 seen from far end of Cibodas golf course),
*Javan Owlet (1 called in at Gunung during day; HO5 mark on lower trail),
[Javan Scops-Owl (Gunung; heard at Blue Lake)],
*Sunda Scops-Owl (1 seen well behind Carita),
*Salvador’s Nightjar (Gunung; very close views at Blue Lake),
Large-tailed Nightjar (Carita), Savanna Nightjar (common Pulau Dua),
Javan Frogmouth (1 seen well at Carita; 2 heard at Gunung at HO8 mark lower trail),
[Chesnut-bellied Partridge (Gunung; many heard but none seen)],
*Pink-headed Fruit-Dove (Gunung; 1 seen, many heard between The Junction & Air Panas),
Black-naped Fruit-Dove (1 at Carita), Island Collared-Dove,
Pink-necked Pigeon,
*Yellow-throated Hanging-Parrot (a pair at Cibodas Botanic Gardens),
*Javan Kingfisher (Gunung; 1 at Blue Lake),
*Small Blue Kingfisher (3 at Pulau Dua; 2 at Muara),
Collared Kingfisher,
*Javan Trogon (Gunung; brief views of one above The Junction),
Checker-throated Woodpecker (Gunung), Sunda Woodpecker (Carita & Pulau Dua),
Fulvous-breasted Woodpecker (Pulau Dua & Muara),
Plaintive Cuckoo (1 seen, many heard around Cibodas),
*Sunda Cuckoo (Gunung; 2 below Air Panas, many heard),
*Sunda Coucal (1 seen well from start of boardwalk at Muara),
*Brown-throated Barbet (commonly heard on the Gunung trails and easily seen),
*Flame-fronted (Orange-fronted) Barbet (commonly heard and seen round Cibodas),
*Black-banded Barbet (1 seen, many heard Carita – showed in response to Bornean Mountain Barbet playback),
Blue-eared Barbet (Carita), Coppersmith Barbet (Carita),
*Waterfall Swift (Gunung; 1 above grassy clearing on lower trail),
Cave Swiftlet,
Edible-Nest Swiftlet,
Brown-backed Needletail (Muara),
Grey-rumped Treeswift (Carita),
Banded Pitta (1 seen, many heard behind Carita),
Pacific Swallow,
Red-rumped Swallow (Muara),
Common Iora,
Blue Nuthatch (Gunung),
Velvet-fronted Nutchatch (Carita),
Long-tailed Shrike (Cibodas),
Scarlet Minivet (Carita),
Small Minivet (Carita),
*Sunda Minivet (1 party above The Junction),
Greater Racket-tailed Drongo (Carita),
*Spotted Crocias (2 parties in Gunung – one at The Junction; one 500m below The Junction),
*Javan Cochoa (Gunung – a female and a male seen separately below Air Panas),
*Sunda (Lesser) Forktail (Gunung – 1 at the waterfall; 1 at Blue Lake),
*Javan Whistling-Thrush (common in Gunung),
[Lesser Shortwing (common in Gunung)],
White-browed Shortwing (Gunung; common below Air Panas),
*Suunda Thrush (Gunung; 1 on lower trail 1km from entrance),
*Chesnut-capped Thrush (1 behind Carita),
*Eye-browed Wren-Babbler (common in Gunung, mainly lower trails),
Large Wren-Babbler (several in Gunung),
Pygmy Wren-Babbler (common in Gunung),
*Crescent-chested Babbler (quite common in Cibodas-Gunung area),
*White-bibbed Babbler (Gunung; several on lower trails),
Chesnut-fronted Shrike-Babbler (Gunung),
White-browed Shrike-Babbler (Gunung),
*Grey-cheeked Tit-Babbler (common behind Carita),
Horsfield’s Babbler (Gunung),
Black-capped Babbler (Carita),
*Sunda (Blue) Robin (seen several times in Gunung at all levels),
*Rufous-tailed Fantail (common in Gunung),
Pied Fantail (Pulau Dua),
Little Pied Flycatcher (Cibodas area),
Indigo Flycatcher (Gunung),
Snowy-browed Flycatcher (Gunung),
Black-winged Shrike-Flycatcher (Cibodas area),
*Javan Fulvetta (common in Gunung),
*Sunda Warbler (common in Gunung),
Mountain Leaf-Warbler (Gunung),
Golden-bellied Gerygone,
Zitting Cisticola,
*Olive-backed Tailorbird (common around Cibodas),
Mountain Tailorbird (Gunung),
Common Tailorbird (Carita),
Ashy Tailorbird (Carita),
Sunda Bush-Warbler (small numbers around Air Panas),
Clamorous Reed-Warbler (Muara),
Plain Prinia (Cibodas),
*Bar-winged Prinia (common around Cibodas and coastal sites),
*Javan Tesia (common in Gunung at all levels),
Yellow-vented Bulbul,
Grey-cheeked Bulbul (Cibodas),
Sooty-headed Bulbul,
*Orange-spotted Bulbul (common in Cibodas-Gunung area),
*Sunda Bulbul (Gunung; a few above The Junction),
Great Tit,
*Pygmy Tit (small parties Cibodas Botanic Gardens & Gunung lower trails),
*White-flanked Sunbird (common in Cibodas-Gunung area),
Ruby-cheeked Sunbird (Carita),
Olive-backed Sunbird,
Brown-throated Sunbird,
*Javan (Scarlet) Sunbird (1 bird behind Carita),
Orange-bellied Flowerpecker,
*Scarlet-headed Flowerpecker (2 at Pulau Dua),
Little Spiderhunter (Carita),
Oriental White-eye (race buxtoni in Gunung and seen at Pulau Dua),
Mountain White-eye (Gunung),
*Javan Grey-throated White-eye (common in Gunung),
Javan Munia (small numbers Cibodas and Carita),
Scaly-breasted Munia,
*White-headed Munia (quite common at Pulau Dua),
*Mountain Serin (Gunung; several between Air Panas & The Junction feeding on white trackside flowers),
*Streaked Weaver (2 at Pulau Dua),
Javan Sparrow (party of 6 at Pulau Dua),
Tree Sparrow.
White-breasted Woodswallow (Muara).
128 species, 44 lifers


*Ebony Leaf-Monkey cristatus (common in Gunung),
Long-tailed Macaque,
Common Tree-Shrew (Carita),
*Black-striped Squirrel Callosciurus nigrovittatus (Gunung),
*Lesser Asiatic Yellow Bat Scotophilus kuhlii (Cibodas),
Javan (Small Indian) Mongoose (Cibodas),
*Colugo (Flying Lemur) – a trip highlight was seeing one behind Carita.